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Chapter 1  Click on the diamonds to expand the chapter.  There are multiple levels.

additional information can be found in my notebook & texts from IPT-536 Introduction to Instructional & Performance Technology
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Definitions of human performance technology (HPT) 
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References (click diamond for more detail)
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Stolovitch, H. D. & Keeps, E. J. (1999). What is human performance technology. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 3 – 23).  San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Dean, P. J. (1999). The fundamentals in human performance technology. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 1 – 2).   San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Addison, R. M. & Haig, C. (1999). Human performance in action. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 298 – 318).  San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Van Tiem, D. M., Moseley, J. L., & Dessinger, J. C. (2000). Fundamentals of performance technology. Washington D. C.: International Society for Performance Improvement. 

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IT Global Resource Network - www.ittheory.com

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a professional field of practice; project based in its activities; integrates teams of people with disparate talent for the purpose of improving human performance (Dean, 1999 p.  2). 

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a field of endeavor that seeks to bring about changes to a system and in such a way that the system is improved in terms of the achievements it values (Stolovitch & Keeps, 1999, p. 5).

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a systematic set of methods, procedures, and strategies for solving problems or realizing opportunities, that are related to the performance of people (Addison & Haig, 1999, p. 299.

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a systematic process of linking business goals and strategies with the workforce responsible for achieving the goals (Van Tiem, Moseley, & Dessinger, 2000, p. 2).

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HPT Defined - a paper by Population Leadership Program a Public Health Institute project 

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HPT principles - from IT Global Resource Network
Objective analysis precedes design & development of interventions
No prior commitment to a particular solution.
People want to do a good job, but often constrained by environmental factors
All performance must be viewed in its total system context.
Work environment tends to non-systematically evolve, rather than being purposefully designed to optimize human performance, and therefore, there is a need to systematically re-design it.

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Examples of HPT practices 
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References (click diamond for more detail)
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Greer, M. (1999). Planning and managing human performance technology projects. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 96 – 121).   San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Van Tiem, D. M., Moseley, J. L., & Dessinger, J. C. (2000). Fundamentals of performance technology. Washington D. C.: International Society for Performance Improvement

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Analyses, reports  and recommendations (see ADDIE page) (click diamond for more detail)
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Performance Analysis

Extant data analysis

Needs analysis

Task analyses

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Organizational Analysis

vision

mission

values

strategies

goals

objectives

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Gap Analysis

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Causal Analysis

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workplace enhancements (click diamond for more detail)
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work environment

resources & tools

policies

recruitment

hiring

feedback

consequences

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work
work flow
procedures
responsibilities
ergonomics

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worker

knowledge

skill

motivation

expectations

capacity / ability

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training materials (click diamond for more detail)

learning organization

training 

teamwork

mentoring

communication


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performance-support tools (click diamond for more detail)
EPSS
job aids
job descriptions

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History of HPT 
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References (click diamond for more detail)
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Rosenburg, M. J., Coscarelli, W. C., & Hutchison, C. S. (1999). The origins and evolution of the field. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 24 – 46).   San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Notes from IPT - 536 Introduction to Introduction to Instructional & Performance Technology

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The table below is intended to be a quick reference guide to the chronology of HPT. It is illustrative and not exhaustive.  You will find more detail about various individuals in the next two sections on foundations.

Major decade

Name

Field of Study

A Major Contribution

Additional Notes

1910s

Frederick Taylor

Industrial Engineering

Scientific Management

 

1920s

Edward Thorndike

Ed Psych

Laws of Learning, Law of Effect

 

1920s

Ralph Tyler

Ed psych

Educational objectives

8 year study

1930s

Elton Mayo

Ed psych

Hawthorne effect

 

1930s

Rensis Likert

O/I psych

Linking pin

 

1930s

Abraham Maslow

Humanistic Psych

Hierarchy of needs

 

1940s

Kurt Lewin

Social Psychology

Group dynamics

father of modern social psychology

1950s B.F. Skinner Psychology Behaviorism - operant conditioning  

1950s

Frederick Herzberg

Org Psych

Motivation-Hygiene Theory

 

1950s

David McClelland

Psychology

Acquired Needs Theory

 Thematic Apperception Text

1950s

Benjamin Bloom

Ed psych

Taxonomy of Education objectives - Cognitive domain

 

1960s

Malcom Knowles

Adult Education

Andragogy

 

1960s

Donald Kirkpatrick

Inst. Tech

Four Level Evaluation

 

1960s

Joe Harless

HPT

Front end analysis

13 smart questions

1960s Malcom Knowles Ed psych Adult Learning Theory  
1960s Robert Glaser HPT Instructional systems, criterion referenced evaluation for mastery learning  

1960s

Robert Gagné

Inst. Tech

Conditions of Learning

Nine events of learning

1960s

Douglas McGregor

Org psych

Motivation XY Theory

 

1960s Philip Crosby management TQM  
1960s Joseph Juran quality management TQM pareto principle 1937
1960s Edward Deming management TQM zero defects
1970s Ed Schein social psych organizational cuture and development  
1970s Peter Drucker management    

1970s

Peter Pipe

PT

performance problem analysis

 

1960s

Robert Glaser Inst. Tech Instructional Systems

 

1960s

Roger Mager

Inst. Tech

Programmed Instruction, Instructional objectives

3 part objectives

1960s Edgar Dale Communication Cone of Experiences  

1970s

Thomas Gilbert

Psychology

Behavior Engineering Model

father of HPT

1980s Roger Kaufman Inst. Tech Organizational Elements Model  

1980s

Dick & Carey

Instructional design

Instructional systems Design

training model

1980s

Geary Rummler

HPT

Performance Anatomy model, consequence & feedback systems

5 components of a performance system

1980s

Roger Kaufman

Inst. Tech

Organizational Elements Model

 needs assesment

1980s Alison Rossett Inst. Tech Training Needs Analysis defined goal of performance analysis to measure the "gap"
1980s Marc Rosenburg PT HPT model 4 categories of intervention: HRD, HRM, OD & EE

1980s

John Keller

Inst. Tech

ARCS motivational model

based on expectancy value theory

1980s William Rothwell HPT HPT model  
1980s Michael Scriven Inst. Tech Formative evaluation criteria & meta-evaluation  
1990s Jack Phillips HPT 5th Level of Evaluation (ROI)  
1990s Erica Keeps PT co-editor of HPT handbook  
1990s Harold Stolovich PT co-editor of HPT handbook  
1990s Dean Spitzer IT 11 intervention design principles Founder of IPT program at BSU

 

1990s Sivasailam Thiagarajan aka. Thiagi PT Team Activities  
1990s Dale Brethower PT Performance based instruction  
1990s Gloria Geary PT CBT & EPSS  
1990s James Robinson &Dana Robinson IT & PT Transfer of Learning, training, Performance consulting  

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Theoretical foundations and drivers 
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References (click diamond for more detail)
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Rosenburg, M. J., Coscarelli, W. C., & Hutchison, C. S. (1999). The origins and evolution of the field. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 24 – 46).   San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Brethower, D. M. (1999). General systems theory and behavioral psychology. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 67 – 81).   San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Clark, R. E. (1999). The cognitive sciences and human performance technology. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 82 – 95).   San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Drivers
behaviorism as a base - observable behavior - change through law of effect
cognitive psychology as additional driver to provide foundation for learning, instruction and where behaviorism fell short of an explanation
as areas of psychology became more specialized, such as social psychology or I/O psychology, these fields provided additional explanatory paths for changing behavior and improving performance.
general systems theory  provided the "glue" the stuck it all together.  The theory provided a world view for the practice and explains the interconnectedness and causal relations between systems, and subsystems.

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educational psychology 

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Taxonomy of ed. objectives - Benjamin Bloom

evaluation
synthesis
analysis
application
comprehension
knowledge
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3 - Objectives - Robert Mager

desired behavior
conditions under which the behavior is to be exhibited
criteria for satisfactory demonstration 
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9 events of instruction - Robert Gagné;

gain attention
inform learners of objectives
stimulate recall
present new content
provide learning guidance
elicit performance - practice
provide feedback
assess performance - test
enhance retention & transfer
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I/O psychology (click diamond for more detail)
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Scientific management - Frederick Taylor

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Group dynamics & force field theory - Kurt Lewin 
driving forces
restraining forces

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Hawthorne studies - Elton Mayo

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Theory X / Theory Y - Douglas Mc Gregor

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Hierarchy of Needs - Abraham Maslow
self actualization
esteem
social
safety
physiological

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Three needs theory - David McCLelland
power
affiliation
achievement

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Motivation Hygiene Theory - Frederick Herzberg
satisfiers
dissatisfiers

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cognitive psychology

Knowledge is constructed differently for different people

we actively think in 7 +/- 2 chunks of knowledge at a time

procedural knowledge - know how

declarative knowledge - know that

near & far transfer

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behavioral psychology
BF Skinner
to identify and increase functional behaviors and identify and decrease dysfunctional behaviors.
law of effect - actions leading to immediate positive consequences are likely to be repeated

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Learning psychology
learning styles

personality types

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General Systems theory (click diamond for more detail)
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system is a group of interrelated elements forming an entity and usually operating toward a purpose or goal (Ch. 2, p. 25).

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importance of system theory is it "enables people with different sets of specialized knowledge to work together toward common goals (Schwiebert, 2004).

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Principles

systems are open - must receive input (energy) from outside the system

systems can be directed toward specific goals
systems adapt through both internal and external feedback
channels for setting priorities
system improve the more it knows about its environment
Subsystem maximization - it is impossible to maximize a subsystem and the whole system simultaneously

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Communications theory
more abstract

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

more concrete

verbal symbols symbolic
visual symbols symbolic
recordings / radio / pictures iconic
motion pictures iconic
television iconic
exhibits enactive
field trips enactive
demonstrations enactive
dramatized experiences enactive
contrived experiences enactive
direct experiences enactive

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Practical foundations and drivers 
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References (click diamond for more detail)
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Rosenburg, M. J., Coscarelli, W. C., & Hutchison, C. S. (1999). The origins and evolution of the field. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 24 – 46).   San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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drivers (click diamond for more detail)
Taylor's scientific management
WWI for OJT and ID
early learning studies such as Tyler's 8 year study
WWII for programmed instruction and media delivery
BEM and the recognition that all performance issues cannot be solved through training interventions.
continued paradigm shift from behavior to performance.  The recognition the behaviors you take with you and performance is what you leave behind.
Computers, computers, computers & CBT
Internet and WWW

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Instructional systems design - Dick and Carey model

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organizational development

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organizational design

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information science

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learning systems

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performance support systems

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incentive systems

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change management

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Information Technology

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Ergonomics & Human Factors

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Psychometrics

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Feedback systems

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Comparisons and contrasts with other organizational improvement initiatives and professions 
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References  (click diamond for more detail)
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(Dean, P. J. (1999). Designing better organizations with human performance technology and organizational development. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 321 – 334).  San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Smith-Hobbes, A. (2004). Creating an effective consulting alliance between organizational development and HPT. Unpublished manuscript.

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Smith-Hobbes, A., (2004), Creating an effective consulting alliance between Organizational Development and HPT. Unpublished manuscript.  

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The HPT practitioner should understand enough about these other professions to know when to consider them as an intervention.  When appropriate, the HPT practitioner would bring into the team or outsource these areas of intervention.

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Instructional technologists - training

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HRM & HRD - HRD is "the integrated use of training and development, organizational development, and career development to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness (Van Tiem, 2000, p. 92). (click diamond for more detail)
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The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) is the world's largest association devoted to human resource management. Representing more than 190,000 individual members, the Society's mission is to serve the needs of HR professionals by providing the most essential and comprehensive resources available.

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online resource http://www.shrm.org

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Interventions include
employee selection
compensation & benefits
motivation - incentive and rewards
performance appraisals
assessment centers and competency training
succession planning & career paths
leadership & executive development
management & supervisory development
literacy
retirement planning
health & wellness

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Industrial engineers

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business consultants & change agent specialists

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Organizational design (click diamond for more detail)
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organization is a sum-total system of formal arrangements that houses the interaction of the structure, processes and systems (Dean, 1999, p. 322).

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It is created and designed by managers to enhance the interface between humans and the work the organization sets out to accomplish (Dean, 1999, p. 322).

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Organizational design variables: 
strategic vision
structure
processes
systems
competence
culture
management & employees
value, quality, and impact of products and service & customer satisfaction

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Organizational development (OD) (click diamond for more detail)
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improving the human dynamics in the organization

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Some OD tools & methods: 
sensitivity training
conflict resolution & team building
open systems planning
measures of quality of work life
organizational transformation, TQM
reengineering, transcultural planning

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OD & org design intervention model

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  HPT Org development Org design
Analysis strong emphasis some some
Organizational Culture addresses formally in performance addresses informally addresses informally
Basis for organization improvement performance based re-education alignment of organizational variables
Historical scope of interventions individual worker or process company-wide company-wide
How change primarily occurs OJT, performance support systems, system & process redesign interpersonal emphasis & human dynamics through re-design
Paradigm systemic, holistic & systematic systemic & holistic systematic & holistic