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Chapter 2  Click on the diamonds to expand the chapter.  There are multiple levels.
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Distinguishers between ID and HPT processes and assumptions
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references (click diamond for more detail)
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www.ittheory.com

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ID interventions are designed to close gaps for deficiencies of skill and knowledge - training interventions

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ID assumes that training (instruction) is the answer

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HPT uses aspects of ID

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Both HPT & ID are systematic processes

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Both HPT & ID are based in systems theory

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process step ID HPT
Needs Assessment/Analysis
bulletFocuses on
bulletSkills/knowledge/experience gaps
bulletof individuals or groups
bulletwithin organizations or society
bulletDetermines if problems or opportunities exist
bulletAnalyzes those aspects of the performance gaps related to skill/knowledge/experience
bulletFocuses on:
bulleta full-range of human performance gaps
bulletof individuals, groups or organization
bulletwithin an organizational setting
bulletDetermines if problems or opportunities exist
bulletAnalyzes all aspects and interrelationships of the performance gaps
Design
bulletDetermines most appropriate instructional tactics, methodologies, techniques, and media
bulletBased upon
bulletCharacteristics and constraints of the content, context of performance, and the target population(s).
bulletDetermines most appropriate strategies. Focuses on the integration of all strategies into a holistic approach. Includes design (or mgt. of the design) of the tactics within each selected strategy.
Development
bulletDevelops instructional content congruent with selected tactics and characteristics of content, context of performance, and target population(s).
bulletIntegrates, sequences and synchronizes the implementation of the selected strategies and tactics
Implementation
bulletImplements the job aid(s), structured practices and/or training.
bulletIntegrates, sequences, and synchronizes the implementation of the selected strategies and tactics.
Evaluation
bulletEvaluates:
bulletthe effectiveness, validity, and reliability of the training and/or,
bulletimpact on on-the-job performance
bulletEvaluates:
bulletthe effectiveness, validity, and reliability of strategies and combinations of strategies and/or
bulletimpact on organizational effectiveness

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Comparisons and contrasts among HPT processes 
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References (click diamond for more detail)
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Langdon, D. G. (1999). The language of work. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 260 – 280).  San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Rossett, A. (1999). Analysis for human performance technology. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 139 – 162).  San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Spitzer, D. R. (1999). The design and development of high-impact interventions. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 163 – 184).  San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Shrock, S. A., & Geis, G. L. (1999). Evaluation. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 185 – 209).  San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Addison,  R. M., & Haig, C. (1999). Human performance technology in action. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 298 – 318).  San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Schwiebert, P. (2004). IPT-560 Human Performance Technology. PowerPoint Slides, Lecture 11.

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 ISPI - HPT model
Marc Rosenburg, Darlene Van Tiem, et. al
ADDIE type model

ISPI - HPT model - schematic

major emphasis placed on the analysis both "gap" and "causal

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 Performance Architecture Map
the model rates competence on the vertical axis and confidence on the horizontal axis.  Interventions are chosen in the quadrant where the lines from the vertical and horizontal axes intersect.  

This model is an interview model in the sense that questions are asked about employee confidence and competence. 

See the model

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Language of Work model - Langdon (click diamond for more detail)
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This model asks the "ADDIE" type questions for each of the six elements of work for one of four levels of performance  

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ADDIE type questions
what exists
what should exist
possible interventions
solutions

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six elements of work are
inputs
conditions
process
outputs
consequences
feedback

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levels of performance are
individual
workgroup
process
business unit

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example of the model

analysis for process or individual or business unit or work group

  inputs conditions process outputs consequences feedback
what exists  
what should exist  
possible interventions  
solutions  

bulletComparisons of the 3 above  models some features are both strengths and weaknesses (click diamond for more detail)
ISPI model performance architecture map Language of work model
strength-strong emphasis on analysis weakness - perhaps not enough analysis.  The intervention come from the intersection of competence and confidence specifically addresses six element of work
includes feedback loop "evaluation" quick to an intervention  Focuses on one level of performance at a time
can be used both for instructional and non instruction interventions no explicit feedback loop "evaluation" weakness is that is does not explicitly state the "gap" nor require a causal analysis
potential risk of analysis paralysis    
other models can fit inside this model    
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organizations and performance are viewed from different levels (click diamond for more detail)
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Individual level  - based on the human performance system

input to performer leads to output which have consequences that results in feedback to the performer.

schematic of human performance system

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job/work/ process level 

This is can be seen through task/job analysis, process analysis, crossfunctional / swim lane diagrams, activity diagrams

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work group level 

functions are vertical and usually represent "silos" of responsibility

processes are horizontal and pass through many silos

addressing processes per this model is called "cross-functional"

schematic of workgroup level

organization

  function A function B function C
process 1 FA:P1 FB:P1 FC:P1
process 2 FA:P2 FB:P2 FC:P2
process 3 FA:P3 FB:P3 FC:P3

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organization level

all interventions, if they are truly to be successful must be aligned at the organizational level

schematic of organizational level

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Organizations are viewed as adaptive systems and the HPT  process is systemic (involves alignment among the different levels) and is systematic (proceeds in a cause and effect / correlative order).

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The role of International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) and other professional organizations in supporting the development of HPT
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ISPI

Founded in 1962, the International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) is the leading international association dedicated to improving productivity and performance in the workplace.

Mission is the development of the theory and practice of HPT (Ch. 44, p. 938)

Online resource http://www.ispi.org

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ASTD:
ASTD is a leading association of workplace learning and performance professionals
Mission: Through exceptional learning and performance, we create a world that works better
Vision: A world-wide leader in workplace learning and performance
Online resource http://www.astd.org

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SALT

Founded in 1972, membership in the Society for Applied Learning Technology® is oriented to professionals whose work requires knowledge and communication in the field of instructional technology.

online resource http://www.salt.org

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Assessment of typical problems through the use of a generalized HPT analysis model
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References (click diamond for more detail)
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Rummler, G. A. (1999). Transforming organizations through human performance technology. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 47 – 66).  San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.(Ch. 3, pp. 47-66 

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Powers, E. S. (1999). The dynamics of politics in organizational change. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 122 – 136).  San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Schwiebert, P. (2004). IPT-560 Human Performance Technology. PowerPoint Slides, Lecture 11.

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HPT approach - Phases of human performance improvement process to be used by the HPT professional - (click diamond for more detail)
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schematic

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form & grow partnerships so when a problem or opportunity arises the client will think "HPT"
demonstrate business knowledge
coach client
identify opportunities for performance interventions

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identify & qualify opportunities / problems
have direct access to true client
assure client will provide time and access to people and documents
client will share responsibility or change
there is a business need that is of interest and concern to the client

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Conduct performance assessments - keep alignment with all levels of the organization.
performance models
process models
gap & causal analyses
data reporting meetings

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Design and develop - based on the data from the gap and causal analyses
the solutions come from the data - from the analyses
consider other organizational specialists if you lack the expertise
solutions usually come from multiple interventions.  One solution does not fit all needs.
Training on solves performance issues related to skill and knowledge.  Literature suggests only 20% or less of performance problems are solved through training alone.

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Mange performance change interventions
provide continuity through clarity of the big picture
act as liaison between client and implementation team
broker specific interventions with outside resources
change management
project management

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Measure results - evaluation

measurement plan

identify data sources

select and design data-collection tools

collection of data that demonstrates rigor

analysis of data for patterns, change and conclusions

use the evaluation as the feedback loop to "tweak" the interventions as needed