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Chapter 4 Click on the diamonds to expand the chapter.  There are multiple levels.

Descriptions and examples of instructional interventions and concepts - additional information can be found in my notebooks & texts from IPT-536 Learning Styles, IPT-540 Learning Theories, & IPT-537 Instructional Design
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Classroom instruction
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References (click diamond for more detail)
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Yelon, S. L. (1999). Live classroom instruction. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 485 517).  San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Schwiebert, P. (2004). IPT-560 Human Performance Technology. PowerPoint Slides, Lecture 9.

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Classroom instruction purpose characteristics & when to use (click diamond for more detail)
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purpose is to teach performers knowledge that will be needed to perform on the job.

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The three major characteristics are: live instructor, group of students, location separate from workplace

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Use when instruction is the solution and it is both possible and preferable.

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Model of classroom instruction characteristics
direct instruction instructor controlled
nondirective instruction student controlled
inductive thinking students supply their own insights
cooperative learning students working in pairs or groups
cognitive apprenticeship students learn professional ways of thinking and acting
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when to use classroom instruction flowchart

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Team activities 
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References (click diamond for more detail)
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Tiagarajan, S. (1999). Team activities for learning and performance. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 518 544).  San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Schwiebert, P. (2004). IPT-560 Human Performance Technology. PowerPoint Slides, Lecture 9.

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Team activities involve more than one person, requires active participation, are structured, achieve specific outcomes in order to increase effectiveness and efficiency of performance in measurable terms

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type of team activity notes
games see handouts from Thiagi below
role-playing  
team-building  
group discussions  
computerized activities  
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Advantages disadvantages
increased motivation learners lack a sense of learning
improved organizational collaboration may remember the wrong things
 instructional - learning skills and knowledge provides fewer transfer skills
  distracting
  reinforce mediocrity
  make people anxious
  perceived as inefficient
  facilitator unpopularity
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When to use When to avoid
complaints about confusing vision, mission goals & values reward system reinforces individual achievement
complaints about "turf" tasks are not interdependent
inability to clearly specify roles and responsibilities  communication channels do not function effectively
frequent clashes between workers and supervisors management does not want input from performers
changing organizational procedures management does not want to share power & authority
team members dissatisfied with each other management wants team building to be in one shot
management wants to improve teamwork management does not want to face the reality of its own weaknesses
projects are complex and interdisciplinary management is unwilling to wait
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Team activities handout from  MIT.edu website

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Two Column communication model handout from MIT.edu website

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Training games - handout from Thiagi

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Evaluating training games handout from Thiagi

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Mentoring 
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References (click diamond for more detail)
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Murray, M. (1999). Performance improvement through mentoring. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 545 563).  San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Van Tiem, D. M., Moseley, J. L., & Dessinger, J. C. (2000). Fundamentals of performance technology. Washington D. C.: International Society for Performance Improvement. p. 91.

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Purdie, M., (2004). Mentoring and Structured On-the-Job Training as Human Performance Technology Interventions.  Unpublished manuscript. 

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mentoring "describes the process that is implemented to deliberately pair two people who have unequal levels of a relevant set of skills and experiences.  The objective of the process is to transfer knowledge and experience of these skills form the person who has more of them to the person who has fewer" (Murray, 1999. p. 546).

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MMHA model presented in class by Michelle Purdie

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Mentoring

roles of mentors

tutoring
coaching
listening
counseling
teaching
modeling
giving feedback
demonstrating
guiding
giving information
facilitating desired performance

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Multimedia design principles and technology 
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References (click diamond for more detail)
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Clark, R. C. & Zuckerman, P. (1999). Multimedia learning systems: Design principles. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 564 588).  San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Gayeski, D. M. (1999). Multimedia learning systems: Technology. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 589 605).  San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Swanson, J. B. (2004), The Promise of Multimedia: A Synergistic Learning System.  Unpublished manuscript.

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Three variables of learning

learner experience
performance outcomes
instructional strategies
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four instructional architectures

receptive instruction
directive instruction
guided discovery
exploration
bulletbenefits & precautions of multimedia applications
benefits precautions
individualized learning  leading "bleeding" edge
standardization change in organizational culture
record keeping intellectual property & copyright issues
collaborating privacy & security issues
rapid updating learning styles & disabilities
desktop learning resource needs for development and management
on demand  
bulletsteps in development
step 1 performance gap, causes and interventions
step 2 development team selection
step 3 mode of interactivity selection
step 4 rapid prototype development
step 5 design questions and interactivity
step 6 content design
step 7 acquisition and development of media and content assets
step 8 alpha and beta tests
step 9 management of records, content and equipment

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On-the-job training (OJT) 
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References  (click diamond for more detail)
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Jacobs, R. L. (1999). Structured on-the-job training. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 606 625).  San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

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Schwiebert, P. (2004). IPT-560 Human Performance Technology. PowerPoint Slides, Lecture 9.

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notes from IPT-536 Introduction to Instructional & Performance Technology

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structured unstructured
can be as effective as off-the-job training impromptu explanations or demonstrations 
purpose is to pass along a  set of  discrete tasks to prepare the performer for the job self-initiated trial and error
requires  time and effort to prepare self-motivated reading, investigating, etc.
training content, methods and outcomes are consistent across performers imitation of others' behavior
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Method general steps
4-step show - tell - do - check
7-step  
3-step PAF presentation - application - feedback
4-step Cognitive Apprenticeship model - coach - withdraw - reflect

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Distance education and distributed learning 
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References (click diamond for more detail)
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Wagner, E. D. (1999). Beyond distance education: Distributed learning systems. In H. D. Stolovich & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology (2 ed., pp. 545 563).  San Francisco ,  CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.(Ch. 31, pp. 626-648)

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advantages disadvantages
decreased teacher bias expensive to implement
increased opportunities of individualized instruction greater burden on student
potentially better instructional design decreased student-to-student relation
student can work a his/her own pace technology fear
better student access to education technology failure
24/7 availability limited technology in some areas and some equipment
use of multimedia for individual differences copyright
can be duplicated i.e. CD-ROMS unclear if students learn better in this environment
can use internet student teacher ratio for instructors
improved 2-way communication
can teach a large number of students
potentially better instructor materials